Pakistan

18aprilupdate

Pakistan

Pakistan is the 36th largest nation by total area. It has a 1,046 km (650mi) coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman. Pakistan is bordered by Afghanistan, Iran, India, and China. Pakistan is also very close to Tajikistan, separated by the Wakhan Corridor. Pakistan is strategically located between the regions of South Asia, Central Asia, and the Middle East. This prime location – combined with varied natural resources, a diverse geography, and interesting environment – make Pakistan a noteworthy country.

Geography

Pakistan is one of few countries in the world to have every kind of geological structure. The geography of Pakistan is a blend of landscapes. You’ll find plains, deserts, forests, hills, and plateaus. There are coastal areas along the Arabian Sea and mountains of the Karakorum Range in the north part of Pakistan. There are green mountains and dry mountains, land rich for cultivating, and waterfalls. Geologically Pakistan overlaps the Eurasian, Iranian, and Indian tectonic plates. Geology Reconnaissance mapping on 1:250,000 scale of the entire outcrop region of the country has been completed Systematic geological mapping of about 50% of the outcrop region on 1:50,000 scale has been completed apart from from the large scale mapping of the priority areas of identified mineral deposits Aeromagnetic survey of an area of 112,000 sq. km has been carried out in the Provinces of Baluchistan & Sindh  About a 188,000 sq. km. of an area has been covered by different types of geophysical surveys and 15,000 sq. km, by geochemical surveys 2,746 bore holes with a cumulative depth of 525,000 meters have been drilled in support of mapping, research, mineral exploration, engineering & hydro-geological investigations. Geology of Pakistan The geology of Pakistan encompasses the varied landscapes that make up the land constituting modern-day Pakistan, which are a blend of its geological history, and its climate over the past few million years. The Geological Survey of Pakistan is the premier agency responsible for studying the country’s geology. Pakistan geologically overlaps both with the Indian and the Eurasian tectonic plates where its Sindh and  Punjab provinces lie on the north-western corner of the Indian plate while Baluchistan and most of the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa lie within the Eurasian plate which mainly comprises the Iranian plateau, some parts of the Middle East and Central Asia. The Northern Areas and Azad Kashmir lie mainly in Central Asia along the edge of the Indian plate and hence are prone to violent earthquakes where the two tectonic plates collide.

Pakistan comprises two main sedimentary basins, which evolved through different geological episodes and were finally welded together during cretaceous Palaeocene along Ornach Nal Chapman strike slip faults these are.
1–   Indus basin
2–   Baluchistan Basin
In addition to these two prodder basins are also recognized which are Peshawar basin and camp bellpur basin
Indus Basin: 
Classification:
Following is the classification of Indus basin:
a-   Upper Indus-basin-Geology kohat sub-basin potha sub-basin
b-   lower Indus basin: Central Indus basin southern Indus basin
In is the sargodha high which is considered to be divide between upper Indus basin and lower Indus basin.
This basin is located in the northern Pakistan and is separated from the lower Indus basin by Sargodha high. The northern and eastern boundaries coincide with the main boundary thrust (MBT).
The basin is further subdivided in to potohar, to the east and kohat, to the west, by river Indus. But kohat & potohar sub basin are characterized by an unconformity between Cambrian and Permian.
 
 In book (I.B.Qadin) the scheme being used is The Lower Indus Basin Contain as follows.
     
1)      Pujnab Platform
3)      Sulaiman Belt
1)   Thar platform
2)    Karachi Trough
3)    Kirthar  Fold Belt
4)    Kirthar Fordeep
5)    Offshore Indus.
The central and southern Indus basins are separated by Jacobabad, Mari kandhkot highs together termed as the sukkur Rift.
This onshore offshore   basin, cover an area of about 300,000 sq.km, is the least explored in Pakistan.
Stratigraphy:
The sedimentary rock exposed in Baluchistan basin range in the age from cretaceous to recent with older rocks exposed in the North and gouger to the South. The deposition of younger iedinentary rocks is controlled by the sub diction of Arabian oceanic flake under the Makran continental plate.
The stratigraphy of this basin is complex and shows a great deal of variation from one end to other.
Stratigraphy
Many past geologic events have resulted in strata or layers of sediment which have formed a stacked vertical sequence of sedimentary rocks. A good example is sediment in the form of mud and sand from a river accumulating on a sea-floor. The sediment forms a layer which eventually becomes hardened or lithified into a sedimentary rock.

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Stratigraphy of Pakistan

S.No
Name
Type Locality
Lithology
Age
1.
District Dadu
Granite, grey, composed of orthoclase
Late Precambrian
2.
Not Designed
Slate
Late Precambrian
3.
Khewra gorge, eastern Salt Range, Punjab
Gypsum beds, dolomite, clay, greenish & low grade oil shale
Tertiary microfossils reported
4.
Not designed
Slate, phyllite & shale
Late Precambrian
5.
Salkhala village, Kishan Ganja River, Kashmir
Slate
Late Precambrian
6.
Khewra gorge Khewra, Salt Range,   Punjab
Sandstone
Early Cambrian
7.
Kussak Formation
Kussak Fort , eastern Salt Range, Punjab
Sandstone, Siltstone
8.
Jutana Formation
Jutana Village, eastern  Salt Range, Punjab
Dolomite
Early  Mid. Cambrian Late Early Cambrian
9.
Baghanwala Formation
Baghanwala Village, eastern Salt Range, Punjab
Shale, Clay
Mid. Cambrian
10.
Khisor Formation
Saiyiduwali (Khisor Range)
Upper  part: Shale
Lower part: Gypsum
Early Mid. Cambrian
11.
Not designed
Biotite, muscovite quartz schist and andalusite staurotite schist
Cambrian
12.
Abbottabad Formation
Sirban Hill, Abottabad, (NWFP)
Dolomite, quartize & phyllite
Early Cambrian
13.
Hazira Formation
Hazira Village
Siltstone, shaly
Early Cambrian
14
Cambrian rocks of N.E. (undefine)
Greywacke, shale and limestone
Cambrian
15
Landikotal Formation
Landikotal, (N.W.F.P)
Phyllite, slate
Paleozoic to Mesozoic
16
Not designed
Sedimentary and metamorphic sequences- Limestone, Phyllite
Ordivician-Early Silurian- Precambrian
17
Kandar Pyhllite
5 Km north of Nowshere (Nowshera-Risalpur Road)
Phyllite, limestone
Late Silurian
18
Nowshera Formation
5 Km north of Nowshere (Nowshera-Risalpur Road)
Limestone & dolomite, reef core, carbonate/reef breccia
Late Silurian to Early Devonian
19
Misri Banda quartzite
12 Km east of Nowshera (Nowshera-Risalpur Road)
Quartzite and dolomite lenses
Devonian
20
Pir Sabak Formation
Not designed
Limestone, dolomitic limestone
Carboniferous- Pre late Devonian
21
Khyber Carbonates
Not designated
Series of shale, quartzite, limestone, dolomite and marble
Early Devonian to Mid. Silurian to Carbonifereous
22
Shagai  Limestone
1 Km N.E. of Shagai (Khyber area, NWFP)
Dolomitic limestone
Allurian to Early Devonian
23
Ali Masjid Formation
Ali Masjid village (Khyber Pass, NWFP)
Sandstone & quartzite, limestone, siltstone, conglomerate
Late Devonian
24
Devonian rock – Chitral
Limestone
Early Devonian
25
Khyber Limestone
Ali Masjid village (Khyber Pass, NWFP)
Limestone
Permian
26
Shakhai Formation
Shakhai 16 km west of Nowshera, NWFP
Dolomitic
Permo-Carbonifeous
27
Sarikol Slate
Not designed
Slate, quartzite, calcareous beds and few volcanic rock
Carboniferous-Permian
28
Darkot Group
Not designed
Slate, Limestone, quartzite, conglomerate, schist, marble, gneiss and volcanic rocks
Permo -Carbonifeous
29
Chalt Schist
Not designated  (SW of Chalt Hunza)?
Schist, quartz biotite schist, phyllite
Carboniferous-Permian
30
Baltit Group
Not designated  (near Baltit Hunza)?
Garnet staurolite, schist, garnet, mica schist, garnet amphibolite, coarsely, crystalline marble, and micaceous.
Carboniferous-Permian
31
Pasu Slate
Not designated (Pasu valley Gilligit)?
Interbedded with quartzite and limestone
Carboniferous-Permian
32
Panjal Formation & Agglomerate Slate
Not designated  (at apex of Hazara syntaxis)?
Volcanic greenstone, metamorphosed lava flows
Carboniferous-Permian
33.
Permian rocks of Baluchistan
Not designed (Wulgai, Gaza band-Kalat Balochistan)
Limestone with marl and clay
Permian
34
Nilwahan Group
Not designated
Includes Tobra Fm. Dandot Fm. Warcha Sst. And Sardhi Fm.
Permian
35
Tobra Formation
Tobra village, eastern Salt Range) Punjab
Tillitic facies with marine   sandstone.  Fresh water facies: few or no boulders, alternating siltstone and shale with spores; Complex facies: diamietite, sandstone & boulder bed
Early Permian
36
Dandot Formation
Dandot village, eastern Salt Range, Punjab
Sandstone, shale, fossiliferous in the basal part
Early Permian
37
Warcha Sandstone
Warcha gorge, Salt Range, Punjab
Sandstone, bedded pebbles of granite
Early Permian
38
Sardhai  Formation
Sardhai gorge, eastern Salt Range, Punjab
Clay, sandstone and siltstone and  carbonaceous shale & chalcopyrite & copper
Early Permian
39
Zaluch Group
Zaluch Nala, western Salt Range, Punjab
Sandstone, shale, sandy limestone, pure argillaceous limestone and dolomite, sandy  and calcareous sandstone
Early to Late Permian
40
Amb Formation
Amb village, central Salt Range, Punjab
Shale, limestone
Artinskian (Lower Permian)
41
Wargal Limestone
Wargal village, central Salt Range, Punjab
Limestone & dolomite
Mid. Permian
42
Chhidru Formation
Chhidru nala, Salt Range, Punjab
Sandstone, shale
Late Permian
43
Wulgai Formation
Wulgai  village  Muslimbagh, Baluchistan
Shale, limestone
Early to Late Triassic
44
Mianwali Formation
Not designated: Ref Sections: Zaluch Nala, western Salt Range & Tappan Wahan, Khisor Range
Shale, varied facies
Lower. Triassic: Scythian
45
Tredian Formation
Not designated Ref: sections: Zaluch Nala western Salt Range & Tappan Wahan, Khisor Range
Non marine unit. Sandstone, Shale
Mid. Triassic
46
Kingriali Formation
Not designated,  (reference sections:  Zaluch Nala, western Salt Range & Tappan Wahan, Khisor Range
Dolomite & dolomite Limestone , marl, Shale
Mid. Triassic
47
Chak Jabbi Limestone
North of Chak Jabbi (Kala Chitta Range) Ref: Section Gabh village
Limestone
Mid. Triassic
48
Shirinab Formation
Shirinab River section (Chapppar Mingochar & Shirinab valley, Kalat, Baluchistan)
Interbedded limestone & shale
Early Jurassic
49
Chiltan Limestone
Chiltan Range S.W of Quetta, Baluchistan
Limestone, chert
Mid. Jurassic
50
Mazar Drik Formation
Mazar Drik, Masri Hills Baluchistan
Interbeds of  shale & limestone, fossiliferous
Late Bathonian
51
Datta Formation
Datta Nala, Surghar Range
Siltstone & mudstone, glass sand, fire clay
Jurassic: Pre Toarcian
52
Shinawari Formation
Shinawari village (western Samana Range Kohat NWFP)
Limestone, shale
Middle Jurassic –  Early Jurassic (Toarchian)
53
Samana Suk Formation
NE of Shinawari (Samana Range, NWFP)
Limestone
Mid. Collovian (Salt Range) Bathonian (Kala Chitta)
54
Sinjrani Volcanic Group
Sinjrani District, Chagai Baluchistan
Agglomerate & Volcanic conglomerate, tuff, calcareous shale
Cretaceous
55
Humai Formation
Koh Humai Hill (Koh- i – Sultan Chagai, Baluchistan)
Shale, sandstone, siltstone, conglomerate,
Maestrichtian  (faunal evidence)
56
Bela Volcanic Group
Bela Town, Lasbela Baluchistan
Tuff, chert, limestone, shale, marl
Cretaceous
57
Sembar Formation
Sembar Pass, (Marri Hills) Baluchistan
Shale, Sandy Shale, Limestone
Neocomian, likely extends down to Late Jurassic
58
Goru Formation
Goru village (Nar River, southern Kirthar Range)
Siltstone, shale
Mainly Early Cretaceous (may extend Late Jurassic to Late Cretaceous)
59
Parh Limestone
Parh Range (Gaj River up reaches Baluchistan)
Limestone, Marl,  Calcareous  Shale
Late Cretaceous
60
Moghalkot Formation
Moghal Kot, Zhob & D.I. Khan Road
Mudstone, shale, marl
Campanian to Early Maestrichtian (Marks 1962:Williams 1959)
61
Fort Munro Formation
Western flank of Fort Munro anticline (Frt. Munro-DG Khan Road)
Limestone calcareous shale
Late Campanian to early Maestrichtian)
62
Pab Sandstone
Pab range Wirahab Nai (Kirthar Province)
Sandstone
Maestrichtian (funal evidance William , 1959, Hunting Survey 1961)
63
Moro Formation
Moro River (Johan Bibi Nani) Baluchistan
Limestone, marl
Maestrichtian
64
Chichaili Formation
Chichaili Pass (Surghar Range)
Sandstone, glauconitic shale with phosphate nodules
Cretaceous
65
Lumshiwal Formation
Lumshiwal Nala (Salt Range)
Sandstone, shale, limestone
Aptian to Early Albian ( Kohat) U. Neocomian to Mid. Albian (Kala Chitta & S. Hazara) In  Hazara Tithonian to Mid. Albian (Fatmi 1972)
66
Kawagarh Formation
Kawagarh hills (north of Kala Chitta Cambellpur District)
Mari, challor, dark & shale
Late Coriacian to Companian
67
Rakhshani Formation
Rokhshani (eastern end of Dalbandin Chagai) Baluchistan
Sandstone, tuff
Paleocene
68
Ispikan Conglomerate
Ispikan, north Makran Balochistan
Conglomerate, limestone & andesitic rocks
Paleocene
69
Ranikot Group
Ranikot Fort northern part of Lakhi Range in Sindh
Limestone, sandstone, shale
Paleocene
70
Khadro Formation
Khadro Bara Nai section northern Lakhi Range Sindh
Sandstone, shale, basaltic flows
Early Paleocene
71
Bara Formation
Bara Nai, Northern Lakhi Range, Sindh
Sandstone, shale
Middle Paleocene
72
Lakhra Formation
Lakhra Bolari section, southern lank of Lakkra anticline, lakhi Range Sindh
Limestone, Sandstone, shale interbeds
Late Paleocene
73
Dungan Formation
Mirhat Tangi, 8km NE of hanai, Loralai Distt, Balochistan
Limestone, Marl, conglomerate
Paleocene to Lr. Eocene(funal evidence)
74
Hangu Formation
Fort Lockhart, Samana Range Kohat, NWFP
Shale, Carbonaceous Shale, nodular
Early Paleocene
(faunal evidence)
75
Lockhart Limestone
Fort Lockhart Samana Range Kohat, NWFP
Limestone, trans, fossiliferous
Paleocene
(faunal evidence)
76
Patala Formation
Patala Nala Range Punjab
Shale & marl, limestone
Late Paleocene
77
Saindak Formation
Saindak Fort, Chaga Baluchistan
Interbeds of shale, sandstone, volcanic rocks,
Eocene to Oligocene (Faunal evidence)
78
Kharan Formation
Near Jalwar, Kharan District. Baluchistan
Limestone,
Early to Mid Eocene (mid extend down into Paleocene)
79
Nisai Formation
North of Nisai Railway. Station Muslim Bagh, Baluchistan
Limestone, Marl, Shale
Eocene to Oligocene in Wagabi ) Early to Mid Eocene
80
Ghazij Formation
Spintangi, Hanai Distt. Baluchistan
Shale, claystone, albaster,
Lower Eocene (on faunal evidence)
81
Laki Formation
Mari Nai, SW of Bara Nai northern Lakhi range Sind
Limestone, calcareous shale, sandstone, laterite
Early Eocene
82
Kirthar Formation
Gaj River Section Kirthar Range Dadu,   Sindh
Interbeds of limestone, shale with minor marl,
M. Eocene to Oligocene (Kirthar Province
83
Panoba Shale
South of Panoba village Kohat NWFP
Shale
Early Eocene
84
Shekhan Formation
Shekhan Nala Kohat, NWFP
Shale, limestone
Early Eocene
85
Bahadar Khel Salt
Bahadar Khel Salt Quarry Kohat, NWFP
Salt, sandstone & clay
Early Eocene
86
Margala Hill Limestone
Jatta Gypsum Quarry, Kohat NWFP
Marl, limestone
Early Eocene
87
Jatta Gypsum
Jatta Gypsum Quarry Kohat NWFP
Gypsum
Early Eocene
88
Ghorgali Formation
Ghorgali Pass Khair –Murat Range Potwar, Punjab
Shale, limestone
Early Eocene
89
Kuldana Formation
Kuldana Village Muree Hill, Hazara NWFP
Shale, marl, bleached dolomite
Early to Mid.Eocene
90
Kohat Formation
Section along Kohat Kushal garh highway
Interbeds of limestone & shale
Early to Mid.Eocene
91
Nammal Formation
Nammal Gorge Salt Range, Punjab
Shale intercalation, marl,   limestone
Early Eocene
92
Sakesar Limestone
Sakesar Peak, Salt Range, Punjab
Marl, limestone
Early Eocene
93
Amalaf Formation
Amalf Section Chagai Baluchistan
Volcanic rocks sandstone, agglomerate,
Oligocene
94
Marken Group
Not designated relates to Makran coast, Baluchistan
Clastic sediments
Eocene to Early Pleistocene
95
Khojak Formation
Nauroz, 30 km NE of Kharan Kalat, Baluchistan
Shale, siltstone
Eocene to Early Miocene
96
Momani Group
Momani River section, Dadu Sind
Marine sediments with some estuarine shale
Oligocene to Early Miocene
97
Nari Formation
Gaj River Section Kirthar range, Dadu, Sindh
Shale, sandstone
Oligocene to Early Miocene
98
Hingalj Formation
Not Designated
Talar Gorge & Jiwani
Shale, mudstone minor conglomerate
Miocene to Pliocene in Balochistan Basin. Oligocene to Pleistocene in Axial Belt
99
Gaj Formation
Gaj River,Dadu, Sindh
Shale, fossiliferous
Early to Middle Miocene
100
Rawalpindi Gourp
Not Designated
Sandstone, Shale of fresh water origin
Miocene
101
Muree Formation
North of Dhok Maiki, Campbellpur,   Punjab
Silstone, fossiliferous, Monotonous sequence of clay
Early Miocene
102
Kamlail
Southwest of Kamlail, Campbellpur, Punjab
Sandstone
Mid. to Late Miocene
103
Siwalik Group
Not designated
Clay, fossiliferous
Early Pleistocene Mid. Miocene
104
Chinji Formation
South of Chinji, Campbellpur, Punjab
Clay, sandstone
Late Miocene
105
Nagri Formation
Nagri village, Campbellpur District, Punjab
Salt, conglomerate, clay
Early Pliocene
106
Dhok Pathan Formation
Dhok village Campbellpur District, Punjab
Sandstone, clay, conglomerate
Mid. Pliocene
107
Soan Formation
Gaji Jagir, Sahil Road near Mujahid village north.of Soan River, Campellpur District, Punjab
Conglomerate, siltstone
Villafranchian Late Astian
108
Gawadar Formation
Gawadar, Makran, Balochistan
Sandy clay
Late Pliocene
109
Jiwani Formation
East of Jiwani to Ganj, Makran, Baluchistan
Shally, conglomerate, sandstone
Pleistocene
110
Haro Conglomerate
Kech Valley near Gish Kaur, Kharan, Balochistan
Congl , claystone, siltstone
Pleistocene
111
Bostan Formation
Pishi Lora valley, Pishin District. Baluchistan
Clay, conglomerate
Pleistocene
112
Lei Conglomerate
Lei River Section SE of Rawalpindi Punjab
Congl, Silstone, Eocene rocks
Pleistocene

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